• Verbs are words that express action or state of being. A verb is always the key words in the predicate. There are three types of verbs: action verbs, linking verbs, and helping verbs. I will talk about one of these types: the linking verbs. (No, not the band Linkin Park).

    Linking verbs connects the subject of a sentence to a noun or adjective that renames or describes the subject. The word, phrase, or clause which follows a linking verb to re-identify or describe the subject is called the subject complement.
    For example:
    The former athlete became a newscaster.
    A parody is a mocking imitation.
    The cake looks delicious.

    Some common linking verbs include be, appear, become, feel, seem, smell, taste, and sound.

    To test whether a verb is a linking verb, replace the verb with the appropriate form of seem. If the sentence is still saying pretty much the same thing, the verb is a linking verb.
    Action Verb: She tasted the ice soup.
    Linking Verb: The soup tasted good.
    (Tasted is used to help good describe the subject.)

  • Hi again! I’m sure you have studied the recount text structure and language features. Now, test your understanding about the material by working on the text in the document I attach here. Read and analyze the text. If you understand the structure and features, I am sure you will be able to produce a similar text. Good luck!

    Click this link to download the file, and have fun!

  • Hello again! In my previous post i wrote about an overview of a recount text. As promised, in this post I will tell you about the structure and language features of a recount text. If you understand this pattern, it will be easy for you to understand and analyze the text.

    The structure of a recount consists of:

    • Orientation or Opening: Information about who, where and when
    • Series of events in the order that they occurred

    Sometimes a recount can also be literary. You may pay attention to:

    • Personal comments and/or evaluation remarks (interspersed throughout the record)
    • A reorientation, which ‘rounds off’ the sequence of events

    A recount text usually uses the following language features:

    • descriptive language
    • past tense
    • time words to connect events
    • words which tell us where, when, with, who, how

    The following checklist may be useful when you read and finally decide whether a text is a recount:

    1. Does it have an introduction giving a rough idea of what it is about? (The W’s)
    2. Is it in time order? (In the order in which things happened)
    3. Are there suitable time connectives such as next, after, finally?
    4. Does it have an ending that brings the writing a clear end?
    5. Is it in the past tense?
    6. Is it written mostly using ‘I’ or ‘we’? (if a personal recount)
    7. Have adjectives and adverbs been used effectively?
    8. Has it been written with an idea of who it was written for?

  • Hi! I am sure you all have ever read a letter. Have you ever wondered when you read a letter you find that it is similar with other texts like biographies/autobiographies, postcards, writes-up of a trip or activity, newspaper reports, diaries, journals, magazine article, or historical events.? Are you aware that they also have a similar structure and language features?

    Those texts are called recount. A recount text usually tells what happened or retell events. It retells events in a chronological way. In non-fiction texts, recounts are used to create factual accounts of events (either current or historical). Recounts can also entertain and/or inform.In other words, recounts can be personal, factual or imaginative.

    1. Personal recount – retelling an activity that the writer has been personally involved in and may be used to build the relationship between the writer and the reader e.g. anecdote, diary journal, personal letter
    2. Factual recount – reporting the particulars of an incident by reconstructing factual information e.g. police reconstruction of an accident, historical recount, biographical and autobiographical recounts
    3. Imaginative recount – applying factual knowledge to an imaginary role in order to interpret and recount events e.g. A Day in the Life of a Roman Slave, How I Discovered Radium
    4. Procedural recount – recording the steps in an investigation or experiment and thereby providing the basis for reported results or findings
    5. Literary recount – to retell a series of events for the purpose of entertaining

    To help you understand a recount text, I will write the structure and the language features in my next post.


  • You can download the course slides by clicking the following links:

    1. lecture 1
    2. lecture 2
    3. lecture 3
    4. lecture 4
    5. lecture 5
    6. lecture 6
    7. lecture 9
    8. lecture 10
    9. lecture 11
    10. lecture 12


    1. kwary.net
    2. http://www.slideshare.net/heping/phonetics-and-phonology
    3. Introducing English Linguistics, 2009, Charles F. Meyer
    4. An Intro to Language, 2003, Fromkin & Rodman
  • March 4! It’s the National Grammar Day in the United States, but I want to celebrate it too as I’m a grammar teacher, haha. Here are some grammatical errors in Indonesian and English I found. Who else wants to join?